Does the violence that children notice in TV shows, movies and video games force them to act aggressively? This is the question today, but it has been a major concern for 50 years when a psychologist led an experiment known as Bobo’s puppet experiment to determine how children learn aggression through observation.
What a puppet experience
Do you know aggression and violence behaviors? In a famous and influential experience known as Bobo’s puppet experience, Albert Pandora and his colleagues showed one way children learn aggression. According to Pandora’s social learning theory, learning occurs through observations and interactions with other people. Basically, people learn by watching others and then imitating these procedures.
Aggression lies at the root of many social ills ranging from interpersonal violence to war. No wonder this is one of the most studied topics in psychology. Social psychology is the subfield devoted to the study of human interaction and group behavior. In this area there is much research on human aggression.
Pandora’s expectations in Bobo doll experience
The experiment involved exposing children to two different adult models, an aggressive model, and a non-aggressive model. After observing the behavior of the adult, the children would be placed in a room without the model and observed to see if they would mimic the behaviors they had seen before. Pandora gave many predictions about what would happen, That children who have observed a very active adult are likely to act aggressively even when the adult model is not present.
He also predicted that children who observed the non-aggressive adult model would be less aggressive than children who saw the aggressive model. The non-aggressive exposure group would also be less aggressive than the control group. Children were likely to mimic same-sex models instead of models of the opposite sex. More strongly than girls.
The method used in Bobo doll experience
The participants were 36 boys and 36 girls enrolled in the Stanford School of Nursery. Children ranged in age from 3 to 6 years. The average age of participants was 4 years and 4 months. There were a total of eight experimental groups, participants were assigned to a control group that received no treatment. The remaining children were divided into two groups of 24 participants each. One experimental group was subjected to aggressive models, while the other 24 were exposed to non-aggressive models.
Finally, these groups were again divided into groups of boys and girls. Each of these groups was then subdivided into half of the adult participants of the same sex. The other half of the adult model of the opposite sex was presented. Prior to the experiment, Pandora also assessed levels The current aggression in children, then the groups were matched equally so that they had the average levels of aggression.
Procedures used in Bobo doll experience
Each child was tested individually to ensure that the behavior was not affected by other children. The child was first brought to the playroom where there were a number of different activities to explore. The experimenter then invited a model to the playroom and encouraged the model to sit at a table and join activities over a period of time Ten minutes later, the adult models began to play with clumsy groups. In a non-aggressive case, the adult model simply played with the game and ignored Bobo’s doll throughout the period. In the case of aggressive behavior, the adult models aggressively attacked Bobo’s puppet.
The model threw Bobo, picked up a hammer and hit the doll in the head. Following the hammer attack, the model threw the doll into the air vigorously and kicked it around the room. The series of acts of physical aggression three times, interspersed with verbal aggressive reactions, and in addition to physical aggression, adult models also used verbal aggressiveness.
After 10 minutes of exposure to the adult model, each child was moved to another room containing a number of attractive games, including a set of toys, a fire engine and a toy plane. However, children were told that they were not allowed to play any of these tempting games, The purpose of this was to build levels of frustration among participants.
Finally, each child was moved to another experimental room. This room contained a number of “aggressive” games including a hammer, a square ball with a painted face, a defender and, of course, Bobo doll. The room also included many “non-aggressive” games including In which crocodiles, paper, toys, plastic animals and trucks were allowed. Each child was allowed to play in this room for 20 minutes while the intruders monitored the child’s behavior from behind a one-way mirror and judged the levels of aggression of each child.
What are the results of Bobo’s puppet experiment?
The results of the experiment supported three of the original four expectations:
1. Children exposed to the violent model tend to mimic the exact behavior they observed when the adult no longer exists.
Pandora and his colleagues also predicted that children in the non-aggressive group would behave less aggressively than those in the control group. The results indicated that while children of both sexes in the non-aggressive group showed less aggression than the control group, boys who observed the other sex model Acting in a non-aggressive manner were more likely than those in the control group to engage in violence.
2. There were significant differences between the sexes when it came to whether a same-sex or same-sex model was observed. Boys who observed adult males acted more violently than those who saw women’s models behave strongly. Interestingly, the experimenters Who were found in same-sex groups were more likely to be victims of physical violence while girls were more likely to imitate verbal aggression.
3. The researchers were right in predicting that boys would act more strongly than girls, and that boys participated in more than double the number of acts of aggression by girls.