Spinoza knew that he was the Enlightenment philosopher before the advent of intellectual enlightenment from the foundation of the eighteenth century. Spinoza spent his life during the second half of the seventeenth century and was one of the most important philosophers of this era, namely, that it existed 100 years before Voltaire, Another literary enlightenment movement.
The early life of Baruch Spinoza:
Spinoza was born on November 24, 1632, in the Netherlands. He belonged to a Portuguese Jewish family of Maronite origin. His father worked as a merchant and was a successful merchant. He was also very religious. A lover of knowledge, making him in constant conflict with the Jewish community.
Baruch studied at the Jewish school “Yeshiva” and remained until 1650. He was also studied by some Hebrew philosophers. Baruch was a lover of reading historical and religious books and was very intelligent in understanding their subjects, which made everyone think he would have a brilliant future and that it would help the Jewish community with its broad knowledge.
The Biblical Denial of Baruch Spinoza:
Baruch began to look at the ideas of Jewish philosophers such as Maimonides, Levi Ben Gershon and Ibn Ezra, as well as his ideas about philosophy and the Middle Talmud. In the end, he declared his separation from the Jewish Temple. In 1656, the religious and civil authorities of the Jewish community issued an order banning Barukh’s canonization, and not being spoken to or treated at all.
In the meantime, Spinoza went to the school of the philosopher Francis Van Eden, known as Avenue, learned Latin, knew a lot about the history and philosophy of antiquity and learned the thought of Francis Bacon, Grotius, Thomas Hobbes and others. And understood it well, and one of the Jewish groups tried to convince him to move away from his views, but he refused to push them to try to kill him, but he survived.
Baruch’s father kicked him out of the house and people prayed to bring God down to curse Baruch, and everyone regarded him as a corrupt person and no one read his writings and did not want to approach him, and although Baruch’s philosophy was about God, only That some had considered him a hypocrite, and Broach passed through difficult circumstances in the midst of the rejection of his people but he remained steadfast and lived his life alone.
– “Short Message”, which focuses on the idea of God, which is the cause of everything.
– “Message in the repair of the mind” in which he talks about the way leading to the knowledge of all things.
– “Eitikia” includes an invitation to move away from the traditional religious perception and follow the mental prospects.
– “Message in Politics” This book attempts to reach the best way of community policy.
– “The principles of Cartesian philosophy” shows why Descartes took the principle of doubt in everything to reach the truth.
– “Metaphysical Thoughts” is an appendix to the Cartesian Principles of Cartography explaining the difficulties of metaphysics.
– “A Message in Theology and Politics” which states that the State has no harm to thought and freedom of expression and that the basis of divine law is the application of the democratic system.
The most prominent words of Baruch Spinoza:
– Truth is the same standard as light knows itself and knows darkness.
– the freest countries whose laws rely on the sound mind.
– The free man preferred to avoid danger, no less than his bounty to overcome it.
– A person controlled by emotions sees only one aspect of the situation.
– From this mind, we should proceed to establish another society more free and humane.
– The world will be a happier place if people have the ability to remain as silent as they can speak.
– No one affects the praise as Almtkabrin, who wants to be the first, but they are not.
– The idea should not lack the heat of desire and desire should not be lacking in the light of the idea.